• Computer Basics
  • OS(Windows, Linux, AIX)
  • IT – Basics
  • Internet
  • Network & Security
  • MS Office
  • Tally ERP 9
  • Auto CAD
  • C - Programming
  • C++
  • Java
  • J2EE, HTML
  • .NET
  • MS-CRM
  • PHP
  • Software Testing
  • PCB Design
  • Hardware Testing
  • RF Fundamentals & Design
  • Wireless Communication
  • Telecom Protocols

Computer Basics

On any given day, you will encounter computer systems in much of what you do, even if you don’t realize it. The television channels you watch, the radio stations that you listen to, the car that you drive in, and even the cash register at the local grocery store are all controlled in some way by computer systems! They help us perform tasks, keep track of information, and even control the airplanes that fly above us. During the course of this class, you will learn about how computers work, how to perform simple tasks, and more.

Anatomy of a Computer

As with most products, computers are designed in a variety of ways. There are, however, major similarities regardless of the brand (e.g., Dell, Apple, Acer, HP, Lenovo) of the computer. There are two main types of computers, desktops and laptops.

OS Operating Systems - Windows, Linux, AIX)

An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs usually require an operating system to function.

Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources.

For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and will frequently make a system call to an OS function or be interrupted by it. Operating systems can be found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers.

Examples of popular modern operating systems include Android, BSD, iOS, Linux, Mac OS X, QNX, Microsoft Windows, Windows Phone, and IBM z/OS. All these, except Windows and z/OS, share roots in UNIX.

IT – Basics

Information Technology involves the processing of information by a computer. Usually this means the use of hardware, software, services, and the supporting infrastructure to manage and deliver information.

IT has changed our daily personal lives radically over recent years - the use of mobile phones to make calls and send text messages, the use of websites to book cheap flights and the use of ATM machines for banking are all an integral part our society today.

Clearly the business environment has been hugely impacted by these developments and practically every company has had to adapt IT in some form in order to compete effectively.

eBusiness can be defined as the application of IT to business processes; i.e. the process of doing business with trading partners electronically. This includes, for example, processing business transactions electronically, integrating business processes electronically and transferring payments electronically and delivering services electronically.

All computers on the Internet communicate with one another using a standard or protocol called the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol suite, abbreviated to TCP/IP. Computers on the Internet use a client/server architecture. This means that the remote machine (server) provides files and services to the user's local (client) machine.

Often the terms internet and web are used synonymously. In casual conversation such as "I was on the Internet" or "I was on the Web," there is no difference. However in practice these are two entirely different items. In the same way that a car travels on a road, a web page travels over the internet, which is the physical network. An Internet user has access to a wide variety of services: electronic mail, file transfer, vast information resources, interest group membership, interactive groups, multimedia displays, real-time (live) broadcasting, shopping opportunities, breaking news, and much more The World Wide Web is basically a particular way of transporting text, images (graphics) and other multimedia content e.g. video and sound clips, over the Internet. Web servers (computers or software) on the Internet are set to respond to particular requests by sending documents to the requester, usually done in HTML. HTML stand for Hyper Text Mark up Language and it is a standard language made for typesetting. It is mainly used for creating documents on the World Wide Web. Included in the language are provisions for including pictures and links to other pages. The requester must use a browser (software programme) to receive this data.


The Internet is a computer network made up of thousands of networks worldwide. No one knows exactly how many computers are connected to the Internet. It is certain, however, that these number in the millions.

No one is in charge of the Internet. There are organisations which develop technical aspects of this network and set standards for creating applications on it, but no governing body is in control. The Internet backbone, through which Internet traffic flows, is owned by private companies.

Network and Security – Basics

A network is a group or a number of people or things linked or connected together, either physically or by association. A Local Area Network (LAN) is common in business and it serves users within a confined geographical area.

Networking an office involves each individual piece of hardware and software - for example your PC's, printers, fax machine, scanner and phone connection- to be networked together to pass and share information. Although networking is traditionally done by physical cabling some LANs run on radio links without the need for cabling, in much the same way as cordless phones have removed the need to be dragging a long telephone line behind you - you can talk and move around at the same time.

Here's how a basic network could work; if there are 4 people in your office and you are the only person that has a printer, each time one of your colleagues wants to print a document they have to email it over to you or get up from their desk, walk over to you and hand you a disk to print from. Why not share that printer with your colleagues by networking the 4 computers together.

Now they can print directly to your printer through the network without disturbing you or wasting time walking across the office to give you the disk to print. However there is a flaw in the above scenario in that the PC, to which the printer is attached, controls the printer. This means that the PC must be constantly switched on for the printer to work.

Alternatively, you can have a printer connected directly to the network by means of a Network Interface Card [NIC] in exactly the same way as a PC is linked to the network. In this way, the printer is independent of all the PCs on the network. Other hardware and devices that can be shared include your fax machine, scanner and telephone connection. Equally, software applications such as your accounts package e.g. TAS Books /SAGE / Exchequer, can be accessed across the network. Some applications such ACT, a customer contact management package, work best when used in a network environment.

A hub can act as the central contact point, connecting to the network interface cards of each device [PC or printer] on the network and distributing the information across the network.

In terms of internet access, to send and receive external email and surf the Internet you need a router, which acts as the buffer between your network and the outside world.


Information Technology can give companies a competitive advantage. However, this can mean that customers, suppliers, contractors, and business partners are routinely allowed access to critical business data and to the systems that process and store the information. Consequently, companies must have a security program.

The three fundamentals of a security program are
  1. Confidentiality - only authorized parties can read the details of the transaction
  2. Integrity - unauthorized modifications of the transaction will be detected
  3. Availability - systems are reliable and recoverable
There are many areas that a company may address as part of a security program and these include
  1. Regular Backups and Recovery;
  2. Anti Virus Protection;
Disaster Recovery;
  1. Audit Logs and Monitoring of unusual activity
  2. Authorised User Access utilizing password control.

MS Office

Microsoft Office is an office suite of desktop applications, servers and services for the Microsoft Windows and OS X operating systems, introduced by Microsoft on August 1, 1989. Initially a marketing term for a bundled set of applications, the first version of Office contained Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel, and Microsoft PowerPoint. Over the years, Office applications have grown substantially closer with shared features such as a common spell checker, OLE data integration and Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications scripting language. Microsoft also positions Office as a development platform for line-of-business software under the Office Business Applications brand. Office is reported to now be used by over a billion people worldwide.

The current versions are Office 2013 for Windows, released on October 11, 2012; and Office 2011 for OS X, released October 26, 2010. On 24 October 2012, the RTM final code of Office 2013 Professional Plus has been released to TechNet and MSDN subscribers for download. On 15 November 2012, the 60-day trial version of Office 2013 Professional Plus was released for download.


Microsoft Word is a word processor and was previously considered the main program in Office. Its proprietary DOC format is considered a de facto standard, although Word 2007 can also use a new XML-based, Microsoft Office-optimized format called .DOCX, which has been standardized by Ecma International as Office Open XML and its SP2 update supports PDF and a limited ODF. Word is also available in some editions of Microsoft Works. It is available for the Windows and OS X platforms. The first version of Word, released in the autumn of 1983, was for the MS-DOS operating system and had the distinction of introducing the mouse to a broad population. Word 1.0 could be purchased with a bundled mouse, though none was required. Following the precedents of LisaWrite and MacWrite, Word for Macintosh attempted to add closer WYSIWYG features into its package. Word for Mac was released in 1985. Word for Mac was the first graphical version of Microsoft Word. Word is used for Scripts and other writing pieces.


Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program that originally competed with the dominant Lotus 1-2-3, but eventually outsold it. It is available for the Windows and OS X platforms. Microsoft released the first version of Excel for the Mac OS in 1985, and the first Windows version (numbered 2.05 to line up with the Mac and bundled with a standalone Windows run-time environment) in November 1987.


Microsoft PowerPoint is a presentation program for Windows and OS X. It is used to create slideshows, composed of text, graphics, and other objects, which can be displayed on-screen and shown by the presenter or printed out on transparencies or slides.

Tally ERP 9

Tally Solutions Pvt Ltd is a Bangalore-based software company that currently sells into more than 100 countries beyond its native India, including the United Kingdom, Bangladesh and the Middle East.

Tally's software is mainly used for vouchers, financial statements, and taxation in many industries, and has specialised packages for retail businesses. More advanced capabilities are found in its Enterprise resource planning package.

Tally Software is developed with a core proprietary engine with a SDK wrapper. Most of Tally's Interaction Forms and Reports are developed using Tally Definition Language (TDL). Customization of Tally Application can be done using the TDL SDK.

Tally.ERP 9 has advanced integration capabilities in the form of Application programming interfaces to make the software extensible. Tally interacts with Software application using XML, ODBC and DLL technologies.

Auto CAD

AutoCAD is a software application for computer-aided design (CAD) and drafting. The software supports both 2D and 3D formats. The software is developed and sold by Autodesk, Inc., first released in December 1982 by Autodesk in the year following the purchase of the first form of the software by Autodesk founder John Walker. AutoCAD is Autodesk's flagship product and by March 1986 had become the most ubiquitous microcomputer design program in the world, utilizing functions such as "polylines" and "curve fitting".[2] Prior to the introduction of AutoCAD, most other CAD programs ran on mainframe computers or minicomputers, with each CAD operator (user) working at a graphical terminal or workstation.

According to Autodesk company information, the AutoCAD software is now used in a range of industries, employed by architects, project managers and engineers, amongst other professions, and as of 1994 there had been 750 training centers established across the world to educate users about the company's primary products.

CIVIL, Mechanical & Electrical

C - Programming

In computing, C is a general-purpose programming language initially developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at AT&T Bell Labs. Like most imperative languages in the ALGOL tradition, C has facilities for structured programming and allows lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations. C program source code is free-format, using the semicolon as a statement terminator and curly braces for grouping blocks of statements. Its design provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions, and therefore it has found lasting use in applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language, most notably system software like the Unix computer operating system.

No one is in charge of the Internet. There are organisations which develop technical aspects of this network and set standards for creating applications on it, but no governing body is in control. The Internet backbone, through which Internet traffic flows, is owned by private companies.

C is one of the most widely used programming languages of all time, and there are very few computer architectures for which a C compiler does not exist.

Many later languages have borrowed directly or indirectly from C, including C#, D, Go, Java, JavaScript, Limbo, LPC, Perl, PHP, Python, and Unix's C shell. The most pervasive influence on these languages (excluding Python) has been syntactical, and they tend to combine the recognizable expression and statement syntax of C with underlying type systems, data models, and semantics that can be radically different. C++ started as a preprocessor for C and is currently nearly a superset of C.

Before there was an official standard for C, many users and implementors relied on an informal specification contained in a book by Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan; that version is generally referred to as "K&R" C. In 1989 the American National Standards Institute published a standard for C (generally called "ANSI C" or "C89"). The next year, the same specification was approved by the International Organization for Standardization as an international standard (generally called "C90").

ISO later released an extension to the internationalization support of the standard in 1995, and a revised standard (known as "C99") in 1999. The current version of the standard (now known as "C11") was approved in December 2011.


C++ (pronounced "see plus plus") is a statically typed, free-form, multi-paradigm, compiled, general-purpose programming language. It is regarded as an intermediate-level language, as it comprises both high-level and low-level language features. Developed by Bjarne Stroustrup starting in 1979 at Bell Labs, C++ was originally named C with Classes, adding object oriented features, such as classes, and other enhancements to the C programming language. The language was renamed C++ in 1983, as a pun involving the increment operator.

C++ is one of the most popular programming languages and is implemented on a wide variety of hardware and operating system platforms. As an efficient compiler to native code, its application domains include systems software, application software, device drivers, embedded software, high-performance server and client applications, and entertainment software such as video games. Several groups provide both free and proprietary C++ compiler software, including the GNU Project, Microsoft, Intel and Embarcadero Technologies. C++ has greatly influenced many other popular programming languages, most notably C# and Java. Other successful languages such as Objective-C use a very different syntax and approach to adding classes to C.

C++ is also used for hardware design, where the design is initially described in C++, then analyzed, architecturally constrained, and scheduled to create a register-transfer level hardware description language via high-level synthesis.

The language began as enhancements to C, first adding classes, then virtual functions, operator overloading, multiple inheritance, templates and exception handling, among other features. After years of development, the C++ programming language standard was ratified in 1998 as ISO/IEC 14882:1998. The standard was amended by the 2003 technical corrigendum, ISO/IEC 14882:2003. The current standard extending C++ with new features was ratified and published by ISO in September 2011 as ISO/IEC 14882:2011 (informally known as C++11).


Java is a programming language expressly designed for use in the distributed environment of the Internet. It was designed to have the "look and feel" of the C++ language, but it is simpler to use than C++ and enforces an object-oriented programming model. Java can be used to create complete applications that may run on a single computer or be distributed among servers and clients in a network. It can also be used to build a small application module or applet for use as part of a Web page. Applets make it possible for a Web page user to interact with the page.

What type of tasks are involved in Web Design Web designers often work on many projects at a time while ensuring that each one meets its deadlines and is of high quality. There are a variety of tasks for web designers when working on a project.

Course Content:

    Session 1:
  1. Introduction to core java
  2. Java platform
  3. Java data types
  4. Java source file
  5. Java comments & setup
  6. Session 2:
  7. Object oriented programming
  8. Class
  9. Objects
  10. Instance & static variables
  11. Constructor
  12. Instance & static method
  13. Static block
  14. Instance block
  15. Session 3:
  16. Class-advance
  17. Method overloading
  18. Inheritance
  19. Extending classes
  20. Method overriding
  21. Abstract class
  22. Interface etc.,


"Java" refers to both a language and a platform. The runtime and libraries that comprise the platform are based on the Java language and come in 3 flavors:

Java SE (Standard Edition): Formerly J2SE but renamed to Java Standard Edition when the Java 2 convention was dropped with the release of Java 5 (formerly J2SE 1.5). It contains a good all-around mix of general purpose libraries including JDBC (Java Database Connectivity), JNDI (Java Naming Directory Interface), RMI (Remove Method Invocation), AWT, and Swing.

Java EE (Enterprise Edition): Formerly J2EE (see above). It includes Java Standard Edition plus most of the other Java technologies including JavaMail, Activation, JAXB (Java API for XML Binding), Servlets, JSF (Java Server Faces), JMS (Java Messaging Service), EJB (Enterprise Java Beans), and others. Most of the APIs are very component-oriented and are intended to provide pluggable interfaces for business components to form robust, distributed internet applications.

Java ME (Micro Edition): Formerly J2ME. It includes most of Java SE and some additional APIs for handheld devices.

Java Enterprise Edition is based on Java, but includes a larger set of libraries than Java Standard Edition, which to most people is synonymous with the word "Java." Note that many of the technologies featured in Java Enterprise Edition are available separately and can be added to the Java Standard Edition platform as needed.

Java is a language and j2ee is a plateform which implements java language.

    Java can be divided into 3 categories
  1. core java
  2. advanced java
  3. J2EE

core java and advanced java are the standard editions of java where as J2EE is the enterprise edition witout completing core and advanced java u will not be able to understand J2EE


HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the main markup language for creating web pages and other information that can be displayed in a web browser.

HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags enclosed in angle brackets (like

, although some tags, known as empty elements, are unpaired, for example 
. The first tag in a pair is the start tag, and the second tag is the end tag (they are also called opening tags and closing tags). In between these tags web designers can add text, tags, comments and other types of text-based content.

The purpose of a web browser is to read HTML documents and compose them into visible or audible web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page.

HTML elements form the building blocks of all websites. HTML allows images and objects to be embedded and can be used to create interactive forms. It provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items. It can embed scripts written in languages such as JavaScript which affect the behavior of HTML web pages.

Web browsers can also refer to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the appearance and layout of text and other material. The W3C, maintainer of both the HTML and the CSS standards, encourages the use of CSS over explicit presentational HTML markup.


.NET Languages are computer programming languages that are used to produce programs that execute within the Microsoft .NET Framework. Microsoft provides several such languages, including C#, Visual Basic .NET, and C++/CLI.

Regardless of which .NET language is used, the output of the language compiler is a representation of the same logic in an intermediate language named Common Intermediate Language. Before the program is executed, CIL is compiled to object code appropriate for the machine on which the program is executing. This last compilation step is usually performed by the Common Language Runtime component of the framework at the moment the program is invoked, though it can be manually performed at an earlier stage.

While there are currently over 40 languages with compilers for the .NET Framework, only a small number of them are widely used and supported by Microsoft. The remainder is composed of languages developed by third party vendors.

    Course Content:
  1. Introduction to .net
  2. Server side controls
  3. Validating user Inputs
  4. .net Web forms
  5. State Management
  6. Data connection with various databases
  7. Data binding
  8. Error handling & debug
  9. Security in .net
  10. Site navigations
  11. Introduction to Ajax
  12. Web parts
  13. C#, .net concepts
  14. C# - data types
  15. Branching & flow control
  16. Object oriented programming


Microsoft Dynamics CRM is a customer relationship management software package developed by Microsoft. Out of the box, the product focuses mainly on Sales, Marketing, and Service (help desk) sectors, but Microsoft has been marketing Dynamics CRM as an XRM platform and has been encouraging partners to use its proprietary (.NET based) framework to customize it to meet many different demands.

The Microsoft Dynamics family of business applications includes other related products such as Microsoft Dynamics AX (ERP application), Microsoft Dynamics GP, (ERP application) Microsoft Dynamics NAV (ERP application), and Microsoft Dynamics SL (ERP Application) and also Microsoft Dynamics Retail Management System; also known as Dynamics RMS.

Dynamics CRM is a server-client application, which, like Microsoft SharePoint, is primarily an IIS-based web application which also supports extensive web services interfaces. Clients access Dynamics CRM either by using Microsoft Internet Explorer 7 or later web browser or by a thick client plug-in to Microsoft Outlook. While other browsers can be used to access Dynamics, results can be mixed and are not supported by Microsoft.

The current version of Microsoft Dynamics CRM is 2011.


PHP includes free and open source libraries with the core build. PHP is a fundamentally Internet-aware system with modules built in for accessing FTP servers, many database servers, embedded SQL libraries such as embedded PostgreSQL, MySQL and SQLite, LDAP servers, and others. Many functions familiar to C programmers such as those in the stdio family are available in the standard PHP build.

PHP allows developers to write extensions in C to add functionality to the PHP language. These can then be compiled into PHP or loaded dynamically at runtime. Extensions have been written to add support for the Windows API, process management on Unix-like operating systems, multibyte strings (Unicode), cURL, and several popular compression formats. Some more unusual features include integration with Internet Relay Chat, dynamic generation of images and Adobe Flash content, and even speech synthesis. The PHP Extension Community Library (PECL) project is a repository for extensions to the PHP language

Course Content:

  1. Introduction to PHP
  2. PHP Variables
  3. PHP Operators
  4. Conditional Statements
  5. Arrays
  6. Loops
  7. PHP File Handling
  8. Functions
  9. PHP Mysql
  10. File Tracking System

Software Testing

Testing software is operating the software under controlled conditions, to (1) verify that it behaves "as specified"; (2) to detect errors, and (3) to validate that what has been specified is what the user actually wanted.

1. Verification is the checking or testing of items, including software, for conformance and consistency by evaluating the results against pre-specified requirements. [Verification: Are we building the system right?]

2. Error Detection: Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen when they should.

3. Validation looks at the system correctness – i.e. is the process of checking that what has been specified is what the user actually wanted. [Validation: Are we building the right system?]

In other words, validation checks to see if we are building what the customer wants/needs, and verification checks to see if we are building that system correctly. Both verification and validation are necessary, but different components of any testing activity.

The definition of testing according to the ANSI/IEEE 1059 standard is that testing is the process of analysing a software item to detect the differences between existing and required conditions (that is defects/errors/bugs) and to evaluate the features of the software item.

Remember: The purpose of testing is verification, validation and error detection in order to find problems – and the purpose of finding those problems is to get them fixed.


  1. Software testing – introduction
  2. Fundamentals of software testing
  3. SDLC
  4. STLC
  5. SDLC Models
  6. Testing – Unit, Integration, system acceptance, Sanity, regression etc.,

PCB Design

A printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways, tracks or signal traces etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. When the board has only copper tracks and features, and no circuit elements such as capacitors, resistors or active devices have been manufactured into the actual substrate of the board, it is more correctly referred to as printed wiring board (PWB) or etched wiring board.

Use of the term PWB or printed wiring board although more accurate and distinct from what would be known as a true printed circuit board, has generally fallen by the wayside for many people as the distinction between circuit and wiring has become blurred. Today printed wiring (circuit) boards are used in virtually all but the simplest commercially produced electronic devices, and allow fully automated assembly processes that were not possible or practical in earlier era tag type circuit assembly processes.

A PCB populated with electronic components is called a printed circuit assembly (PCA), printed circuit board assembly or PCB Assembly (PCBA). In informal use the term "PCB" is used both for bare and assembled boards, the context clarifying the meaning.

Alternatives to PCBs include wire wrap and point-to-point construction. PCBs must initially be designed and laid out, but become cheaper, faster to make, and potentially more reliable for high-volume production since production and soldering of PCBs can be automated. Much of the electronics industry's PCB design, assembly, and quality control needs are set by standards published by the IPC organization.

Hardware Testing

Pertains to processes involved in validating the operation of electronic hardware.

A common test platform (CTP), also called an open test standard (OTS), is a set of specifications defining test methods for diverse components of computer and electronic systems to be marketed as complete products. The intent of a CTP is to ensure consistency in hardware and software test procedures from the conceptual and design phases through manufacture and distribution. Computers, computer peripherals and electronic systems often contain complex devices, circuits, programs and interfaces. These must all work together in a variety of applications and conditions. A CTP can be part of an overall quality assurance program. A common standard can reduce the cost of test equipment, optimize the use of available test equipment, increase production efficiency and minimize training costs.

RF Fundamentals & Design

Radio frequency (RF) engineering is a subset of electrical engineering that deals with devices that are designed to operate in the Radio Frequency spectrum. These devices operate within the range of about 3 kHz up to 300 GHz.

RF engineering is incorporated into almost everything that transmits or receives a radio wave, which includes, but is not limited to, Mobile Phones, Radios, WiFi, and two-way radios.

RF engineering is a highly specialized field falling typically in one of two areas; 1) providing or controlling coverage with some kind of antenna/transmission system and 2) generating or receiving signals to or from that transmission system to other communications electronics or controls. To produce quality results, an in-depth knowledge of mathematics, physics, general electronics theory as well as specialized training in areas such as wave propagation, impedance transformations, filters, microstrip circuit board design, etc. may be required. Because of the many ways RF is conducted both through typical conductors as well as through space, an initial design of an RF circuit usually bears very little resemblance to the final optimized physical circuit. Revisions to the design are often required to achieve intended results.

Radio electronics is concerned with electronic circuits which receive or transmit radio signals.

Typically such circuits must operate at radio frequency and power levels, which imposes special constraints on their design. These constraints increase in their importance with higher frequencies. At microwave frequencies, the reactance of signal traces becomes a crucial part of the physical layout of the circuit.

List of radio electronics topics:

  1. RF oscillators: PLL, Voltage-controlled oscillator
  2. Transmitters, Transmission lines, RF connectors
  3. Antennas, Antenna theory, List of antenna terms
  4. Receivers, Tuners
  5. Amplifiers
  6. Modulators, demodulators, detectors
  7. RF filters
  8. RF shielding, Ground plane
  9. PCB layout guidelines
  10. DSSS, Noise power
  11. Digital radio

Wireless Communication

Wireless communication is the transfer of information between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor.

The most common wireless technologies use electromagnetic wireless telecommunications, such as radio. With radio waves distances can be short, such as a few metres for television remote control, or as far as thousands or even millions of kilometres for deep-space radio communications. It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable applications, including two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples of applications of radio wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers, wireless computer mice, keyboards and headsets, headphones, radio receivers, satellite television, broadcast television and cordless telephones.

Less common methods of achieving wireless communications include the use of light, sound, magnetic, or electric fields.

Wireless operations permit services, such as long-range communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires. The term is commonly used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems (e.g. radio transmitters and receivers, remote controls etc.) which use some form of energy (e.g. radio waves, acoustic energy, etc.) to transfer information without the use of wires. Information is transferred in this manner over both short and long distances.

Telecom Protocols

PROTOCOL : A protocol is the special set of rules that end points in a telecommunication connection use when they communicate.

EXISTENCE: Protocols exist at several levels in a telecommunication connection. For example, there are protocols for the data interchange at the hardware device level and protocols for data interchange at the application program level. In the standard model known as Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), there are one or more protocols at each layer in the telecommunication exchange that both ends of the exchange must recognize and observe.


Telecom testing or protocol testing is also comes under testing technology. Engineers can test any software in any domain with the knowledge of software testing except telecom domain. we can test applications in banking domain , insurance domain or retail domain with the knowledge of software testing. it all involving money transaction that all the human being can easily understand without any specialized training .protocol , sockets ,pockets are involving in telecom applications and need to have these knowledge to test telecom application. telecom testing training course is the combined study of protocol , networking concepts , ems/nms , perl and testing concepts.

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